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The nation has taken steps to forestall and handle violence towards women. Support companies for survivors of domestic violence have been strengthened, involving nationwide shelters, free authorized aid, referral mechanisms on the municipal level, and a National Counselling Line for Victims of Domestic Violence.

Data from the 2013 survey revealed that 59.4% of the 3589 surveyed women have skilled some form of IPV of their lifetime and fifty three.7% are at present experiencing it. The prevalent type of IPV was psychological violence with fifty eight.2% of respondents reporting experiences of verbal abuse, psychological threats, controlling behaviors and/or economic abuse in their lifetime. About a quarter of the sample (24.6%) reported lifetime experiences with both bodily or sexual abuse, and sixteen.2% of ladies admitted to current experiences of these kind of abuse in their relationships. Women who did not work outside the house, who didn’t have a college schooling, and girls from rural areas have been significantly more likely to experience IPV. The results of the financial crisis and the undertaken austerity measures have been devastating for the Greek population each materially and psychologically . Between 2008 and 2011, the unemployment rate has almost doubled for native Greeks (8.3% to fifteen.9%) and virtually tripled for immigrants (7.4% to 19.eight%) .

Data from the governmental companies are piecemeal, not very informative and underestimate the extent of the issue. Conversely, the World Organization towards Torture estimated that there have been 4500 rape circumstances yearly . Only 270 cases were reported to the police; 183 led to the arrest of an offender; and fewer than 10 offenders had been convicted of the rape crime and despatched to a detention facility . Until lately, IPV was not considered a social problem in Albania. It was seen as a personal issue, a normal part of married life, deeply rooted in patriarchal norms and customs, and definitely outside of the legal justice system’s area . Two current national inhabitants-primarily based surveys have been carried out to measure the character and extent of IPV towards women in Albania and the assistance-looking for habits of victims of IPV .

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As talked about earlier, many Albanian men employed in agriculture and development sectors had lost their jobs after the Greek economic disaster. However, Albanian women have been capable of hold on to unskilled and low paid job in cleaning and other service sectors. Consequently, many respondents discussed the intimate companion violence in Albanian household as a result of shifting gender roles and viewing violence as a way of reestablishing control over women and household issues. In addition, Albanian immigrant women had been incessantly employed in the informal sector—performing domestic work that was not enticing for the native inhabitants because of its related low salaries and lengthy working hours.

The variety of Albanian women in the workforce is quickly rising. Women now comprise the vast majority of agricultural employees in Albania, but they are nonetheless paid lower wages than their male counterparts.

However, as massive deportations did not stop the circulate of irregular migration into Greece, the Greek government enacted several regularization insurance policies in 1998, 2001 and 2005. The first regularization program was harshly criticized for bureaucratic delays, the extreme burdens placed on applicants, and preserving the arbitrary power of employers over immigrant employees who applied for legalization . In the late 1980s, Greece grew to become a preferred destination country for immigrants. The liberalization and unraveling of the communist regimes in the countries of Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union led to an unprecedented influx of immigrants to Greece and several different Southern European nations. The circulate of immigrants reached its peak in the early to mid 1990s.

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The initial contact info for immigration legal professionals in Athens was obtained from printed stories about refugees’ state of affairs in Greece. The 4 lawyers who co-authored this report had been contacted and all agreed to fulfill and participate in the research. Key contact persons from relevant governmental places of work, such as the General Secretariat for Gender Equality, the Ministry of Interior, and the Ministry of Justice, had been also invited to participate within the research. This was accomplished because shelters for battered women in Greece often fall beneath the auspices of the state government or, even if they’re operated by NGOs, they nonetheless obtain some financial help from the state.

Promising the effective engagement of all establishments answerable for taking motion on gender equality and ladies’s empowerment, Albania vows to take motion on women’s financial empowerment, ending violence against women, and rising their function in determination-making. This will include growing and enhancing women’s entry to credit score, and selling and expanding employment programmes for girls and girls, in the direction of upping the participation of ladies in labour markets. According to women’s rights organisations, the lack of property rights is among the many points going through feminine survivors of home violence in Albania. According to a research carried out by the Swedish authorities, U.N.D.P. and U.N. Women, greater than 50% of Albanian women have been victims of some form of “sexual, bodily or psychological violence.” This mostly happens as a result of a companion’s perpetration. Additionally, a latest mixture of economic struggles and keep-at-house orders as a result of COVID-19 has caused an increase in home violence in Albania. Women is initiating social media campaigns to unfold awareness about resources offering safety and shelter for domestic violence victims throughout Albania.

Home Violence Against Albanian Immigrant Women In Greece: Dealing With Patriarchy

Since Albanian immigrant women typically lacked needed work permits because of their immigrant standing, employment within the casual, or underground, financial system was their solely different. However, work in the underground economic system sometimes entails a scarcity of authorized protection from employers’ exploitation, no access to welfare benefits, and low salary. In addition, the lengthy work hours and the usually poor working situations of immigrant women contributed to their social isolation.

Stronger legal and institutional mechanisms will seek to better protect women’s rights, and improved monitoring and evaluation mechanisms will keep progress in direction of gender equality on track. Like Shpresa, many ladies in Albania not only face home violence but in addition wrestle to say their property rights.

Between the years 1991 and 2001, “the population of Greece increased by 7%, whereas the immigrant inhabitants—both authorized and unlawful —more than tripled, to account for 7.three% of the complete inhabitants in 2001” (, p. 81). What made Greece a very attractive nation for immigration? Research seeking to reply this question focuses on the country’s giant casual economy and its segmentation into hundreds of small, oftentimes family run businesses which might be in want of low-cost labor . Other elements embody the seasonal nature of labor in lots of sectors of the financial system, corresponding to agriculture, development and tourism; and the unwillingness of Greek citizens to man these labor intensive, unskilled, badly paid and low-standing jobs.

When the patriarchal group of the family is crumbling, domestic violence could turn out to be a way of enforcing women’s conformity. These elements—lack of stable footing in terms of the authorized status and being employed in informal financial system—push immigrant women into subservient positions and undoubtedly have an effect on immigrant battered women’s decision to leave their batterers. Respondents within the 2009 study strongly agreed that the scenario of immigrant Albanian battered women in comparison with battered Greek women was dismal. In the 2009 the sampling started with figuring out a list of shelters in Athens that present help to victims of violence and a listing of NGOs that concentrate on women and immigration points. Both the record of shelters and NGOs list had been retrieved from organizational material about women immigrants from DIOTIMA.1 The group recognized 5 shelters in Athens and eight NGOs that work with women and immigrants. Initial contact with the shelters and NGOs were made through email, inviting employees to take part within the research directly and asking for their assistance in recruiting additional individuals. Everybody contacted agreed to take part and meet for interviews in the course of the area examine part in Athens.


Interestingly, perception in the sanctity of the family was integrated into Greek home violence laws. Specifically, victims of IPV are provided a chance to resolve “household problems” via a mediation course of, a brand new institution where the General Prosecutor brings the sufferer and the offender together, aiming to resolve the issue of violence. It is critical to point out that this “mediation course of” was not created so as to provide couples with the environment in which they can resolve issues of divorce or youngster custody. The thought behind the “mediation process” was to maintain and save the family as a unit. Greek social staff in Wasileski’s study raised critical concern about energy imbalances during mediation and identified the incompetence of the one who led the mediation , and the poor high quality of remedy supplied to the batterer . True estimates of IPV in Greece stay unknown since no comprehensive national data about victims or the number of cases of domestic violence is collected.

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Finally, researchers additionally cite among the advantages “the dampening of inflationary pressures” and the strengthening, though quick time period, of the social security system . An essential caveat is that most of these studies were done previous to the Greek financial disaster of 2008–2009. The Greek government had been caught unprepared to take care of the huge migration phenomenon legally, politically and socially . Until 1997, no migration policy had been implemented apart from the deportation of unlawful immigrants.

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Since the real property market crashed, the development sector—where a big proportion of male immigrants had been employed—was hit very hard. A large proportion of immigrants confronted the specter of dropping their authorized standing since renewing their keep permits was related to having authorized employment and insurance coverage . Many immigrants face the alternative of remaining in Greece in a standing of illegality or returning to their house country. According to the most recent research and media reviews, many Albanian immigrants are choosing the latter . The consensus is that, general and no less than where the economy is concerned, migration has had useful results. Second, many small and medium companies had been able to enhance their competitiveness and profits relying on immigrant help. Third, the country’s agricultural sector has considerably benefitted from immigrant workers.